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Italian Renaissance Learning Resources

In collaboration with the National Gallery of Art

Picturing Family and Friends


1. Joan Kelly-Gadol, “Did Women Have a Renaissance?” in Becoming Visible: Women in European History, ed. Renate Breidenthal and Claudia Koonz (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), 149–64.

2. Francesco Guicciardini, quoted in Jacqueline Marie Musacchio, Art, Marriage, and Family in the Florentine Renaissance Palace (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 11.

3. Leon Battista Alberti, quoted in Musacchio, Art, Marriage, and Family, 159.

4. Cherubino Ghirardacci, quoted in Eleonora Luciano, “The Power of Princesses: Ginevra Sforza,” paper delivered at the symposium “Beauty Adorns Virtue: Renaissance Portraits of Women,” National Gallery of Art, Washington, October 5–6, 2001. This description is indebted to her as-yet unpublished research.

5. Bernard Berenson, quoted in David Alan Brown, Peter Humfrey, and Mauro Lucco, Lorenzo Lotto: Rediscovered Master of the Renaissance, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 136.

6. Quoted in Andrea Bayer, ed., Art and Love in Renaissance Italy, exh. cat., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 232.

7. Matteo Palmieri, Della vita civilis, quoted in Arnold Victor Coonin, “Portrait Busts of Children in Quattrocento Florence,” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 30 (1995): 69.

8. Leon Battista Alberti, The Family in Renaissance Florence (I Libri della famiglia), trans. and intro. Renée Neu Watkins (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1969), 58.

9. Agnolo Bronzino, quoted in Bayer, ed., Art and Love, 27.

10. Francesco I de’ Medici, quoted in Bayer, ed., Art and Love, 278.

11. As noted by Helen S. Ettlinger, “Visibilis et Invisibilis: The Mistress in Italian Renaissance Court Society,” Renaissance Quarterly 47 (1994): 770.

12. Quoted in Ettlinger, “Visibilis et Invisibilis,” 782, who cites Werner L. Grundersheimer, Ferrara: The Style of a Renaissance Despotism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973), 16-17 [sic; the reference should be to page 76 and n. 17].

13. Marsilio Ficino, quoted in Victoria Kirkhan, “Poetic Ideals of Love and Beauty,” in David Alan Brown et al., Virtue and Beauty: Leonardo’s Ginevra de’ Benci and Renaissance Portraits of Women, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001), 59.

14. Matteo Palmieri, quoted in Dale Kent, Friendship, Love, and Trust in Renaissance Florence (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009), 10.

15. Quoted in Kent, Friendship, 178.

16. Anselmo Calderoni, quoted in Kent, Friendship, 169.

17. Anselmo Calderoni, quoted in Kent, Friendship, 24.

18. Vittoria Colonna to Michelangelo, quoted in “Online Tour, Michelangelo’s Drawings,” British Museum, accessed October 27, 2010, http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/online_tours/europe/michelangelos_drawings/crucifixion_by_michelangelo,_a.aspx.

19. Cicero, quoted in Elizabeth Cropper, “Pontormo and Bronzino in Philadelphia: A Double Portrait,” in Carl Brandon Strehlke, Pontormo, Bronzino and the Medici: The Transformation of the Renaissance Portrait in Florence, exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004), 17.

20. Pico della Mirandola, quoted in Cropper in Strehlke, Pontormo, 18.

21. Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, trans. G. du C. De Verre (London: Philip Lee Warner, 1912), 5:49–50.

22. Vasari, Lives, 3:273–74.