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Italian Renaissance Learning Resources

In collaboration with the National Gallery of Art

Virgin and Child


1. Peter Burke, The Italian Renaissance: Culture and Society in Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 162.

2. Quoted in Hans Belting, The Image and Its Public in the Middle Ages: Form and Function of Early Paintings of the Passion, trans. Mark Bartusis and Raymond Meyer (New Rochelle, NY: A. D. Caratzas, 1990), 500.

3. Quoted in Belting, Image and Its Public, 22.

4. Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, quoted in Robin Cormack, Icons (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 17.

5. Saint Basil, Letters, quoted in Gary Vikan, Icon (Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery; Washington, D.C.: Trust for Museum Exhibitions, 1988), 11.

6. Quoted in Vikan, Icon, 6.

7. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils and Sancti Antonini, Summa Theologica, both quoted in Patricia Lee Rubin, Images and Identity in Fifteenth-Century Florence (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), 178.

8. Aquinas, Scriptum super sententiis, quoted in Rubin, Images and Identity, 178.

9. Bessarion to Cristoforo Moro, quoted in Rona Goffen, “Icon and Vision: Giovanni Bellini’s Half-Length Madonnas,” Art Bulletin 57 (1975): 488.

10. Goffen, “Icon and Vision,” 509.

11. Patricia Lee Rubin and Alison Wright, with contributions by Nicholas Penny, Renaissance Florence: The Art of the 1470s (London: National Gallery Publications, 1999), 288.

12. Paolo Attavanti, Dialogus de origine ordinis servorum ad Petrum Cosmae, quoted in Megan Holmes, “The Elusive Origins of the Cult of the Annunziata in Florence,” in The Miraculous Image in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Erik Thunø and Gerhard Wolf (Rome: Erma di Bretschneider, 2004), 98.

13. Sacchetti, I sermoni evangelici, le lettere ed altri scriti inediti o rari, quoted in Holmes, “Elusive Origins of the Cult of the Annunziata in Florence,” 112.

14. Neri di Bicci, Le Ricordanze, quoted in Jacqueline Marie Musacchio, Art, Marriage, and Family in the Florentine Renaissance Palace (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 198.

15. Magistrato dei pupilli avanti il principato, quoted in Musacchio, Art, Marriage, and Family, 196.

16. Rubin, Images and Identity, 215.

17. Quoted in Dale Kent, Cosimo de’ Medici and the Florentine Renaissance: The Patron’s Oeuvre (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 95.

18. Ugo Panziera da Prato, quoted in Diana Norman, ed. Siena, Florence, and Padua: Art, Society, and Religion, 1280–1400 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), 1:183.

19. Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Architects by Giorgio Vasari, trans. Gaston du C. de Verre (London: Philip Lee Warner, 1912–14), 4:242.

20. Lives of Seventy of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Architects by Giorgio Vasari, ed. and annot. E. H. and E. W. Blashfield and A. A. Hopkins (New York: Scribner, 1896), 3:136.

21. Quoted in Alexander Nagel, “Gifts for Michelangelo and Vittoria Colonna,” Art Bulletin 79 (1997): 666.